Preoperative Squid embolization of carotid paragangliomas with direct puncture

Neuroradiol J. 2020 Jun;33(3):224-229. doi: 10.1177/1971400920910409. Epub 2020 Mar 12.


Background and purpose: Preoperative embolization of carotid paragangliomas is a common procedure in interventional neuroradiology. Direct puncture embolization has shown less morbidity and mortality than endovascular embolization and a higher percentage of devascularization. We describe our experience using Squid® as the only embolic agent in direct puncture glomus embolization.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed pre-embolization imaging tests, emphasizing the volume of the lesion, clinical history data, technical aspects of the procedure, as well as the approximate amount of blood lost during the surgical procedure in all patients with preoperative embolization of carotid paragangliomas performed at our tertiary care hospital.

Results: Six patients met our criteria from May 2017 to August 2018. The volume of the mass ranged from 1.4-18.5 mL and the quantity of Squid® injected varied from 1.1-15 mL. Total devascularization was achieved in almost all cases (>90%), with one puncture needed in all but one patient, who was punctured two times. No hemorrhagic complications were described in surgery, no blood transfusions were needed, and the mean decrease of hemoglobin after surgery was 1.04 g/dL.

Conclusions: Direct puncture embolization of carotid paragangliomas only using Squid® is a safe and relatively simple procedure that facilitates the subsequent surgery with minimal blood loss.

Keywords: Carotid paraganglioma; Squid; direct puncture; presurgical embolization.

MeSH terms

  • Carotid Body Tumor / therapy*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / methods*
  • Humans
  • Punctures / methods*
  • Retrospective Studies