Purpose: This exploration is aimed at developing sorafenib (SF)-loaded cationically-modified polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) as inhalable carriers for improving the therapeutic efficacy of SF against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Methods: The NPs were prepared using a solvent evaporation technique while incorporating cationic agents. The optimized NPs were characterized by various physicochemical parameters and evaluated for their aerosolization properties. Several in-vitro evaluation studies were performed to determine the efficacy of our delivery carriers against NSCLC cells.
Results: Optimized nanoparticles exhibited an entrapment efficiency of ~40%, <200 nm particle size and a narrow poly-dispersity index. Cationically-modified nanoparticles exhibited enhanced cellular internalization and cytotoxicity (~5-fold IC50 reduction vs SF) in various lung cancer cell types. The inhalable nanoparticles displayed efficient aerodynamic properties (MMAD ~ 4 μM and FPF >80%). In-vitro evaluation also resulted in a superior ability to inhibit cancer metastasis. 3D-tumor simulation studies further established the anti-cancer efficacy of NPs as compared to just SF.
Conclusion: The localized delivery of SF-loaded nanoparticles resulted in improved anti-tumor activity as compared to SF alone. Therefore, this strategy displays great potential as a novel treatment approach against certain lung cancers.
Keywords: 3D spheroids; Sorafenib; cationically modified particles; inhalable nanoparticle; non-small cell lung cancer.