Purpose of review: Molecular characterization of cancer allows us to understand oncogenesis and clinical prognosis as well as facilitates development of biomarkers and treatment. Our aim was to review the current literature on genomic characterization of bladder cancer, and how far we are in implementing genomics into clinical practice.
Recent findings: Bladder cancers are molecularly diverse tumors with a high mutational rate. On molecular level, bladder cancer can be categorized into at least six subtypes called luminal-papillary, luminal-unstable, luminal non-specified, basal-squamous, neuroendocrine-like, and stroma-rich. These subtypes have characteristic genomic and transcriptomic profiles and appear to have different prognoses. Several molecular subtypes have been identified in bladder cancer. Prospective trials are underway to validate the applicability of genomic subtypes for clinical decision making. Further integrative analyses of genomic alterations, gene expression, epigenetics, and proteomics need to be performed before genomic subtyping can be attained in clinical practice.
Keywords: Bladder cancer; Genomic analysis; Immunotherapy; Molecular subtyping; Mutations; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy.