Minimally invasive versus open surgery for the correction of adult degenerative scoliosis: a systematic review

Neurosurg Rev. 2021 Apr;44(2):659-668. doi: 10.1007/s10143-020-01280-9. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Abstract

While open surgery has been the primary surgical approach for adult degenerative scoliosis, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) represents an alternative option and appears to be associated with reduced morbidity. Given the lack of consensus, we aimed to conduct a systematic review on available literature comparing MIS versus open surgery for adult degenerative scoliosis. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched through December 16, 2019, for studies that compared both MIS and open surgery in patients with degenerative scoliosis. Four cohort studies reporting on 350 patients met the inclusion criteria. In two studies, patients undergoing open surgery were younger and had more severe disease at baseline as compared with MIS. Patients who underwent MIS had less blood loss, shorter length of stay, and a reduced rate of complications and infections. Both MIS and open surgery resulted in a significant change in pain and disability scores and both approaches provided significant correction of deformity in all studies, although open surgery was associated with a greater change in pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch (PI-LL) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) in two and three studies, respectively. In patients with adult degenerative scoliosis undergoing surgery, both MIS and open approaches appeared to offer comparable improvements in pain and function. However, MIS was associated with better safety outcomes, while open surgery provided greater correction of spinal deformity. Further studies are needed to identify specific subset of patients who may benefit from one approach versus the other.

Keywords: Minimally invasive surgery; Open surgery; Scoliosis; Spinal deformity.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lordosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Lordosis / surgery
  • Male
  • Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Scoliosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Scoliosis / surgery*
  • Spinal Fusion / methods*
  • Treatment Outcome