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. 2020 Jun 1;38(16):1836-1848.
doi: 10.1200/JCO.19.01410. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Targets and Antibody Formats for Immunotherapy of Neuroblastoma

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Free PMC article

Targets and Antibody Formats for Immunotherapy of Neuroblastoma

Jeong A Park et al. J Clin Oncol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a malignant embryonal tumor of the sympathetic nervous system that is most commonly diagnosed in the abdomen, often presenting with signs and symptoms of metastatic spread. Three decades ago, high-risk NB metastatic to bone and bone marrow in children was not curable. Today, with multimodality treatment, 50% of these patients will survive, but most suffer from debilitating treatment-related complications. Novel targeted therapies to improve cure rates while minimizing toxicities are urgently needed. Recent molecular discoveries in oncology have spawned the development of an impressive array of targeted therapies for adult cancers, yet the paucity of recurrent somatic mutations or activated oncogenes in pediatric cancers poses a major challenge to the evolving paradigm of personalized medicine. Although low tumor mutational burden is a major hurdle for immune checkpoint inhibitors, an immature or impaired immune system and inhibitory tumor microenvironment can further complicate the prospects for successful immunotherapy. In this regard, despite the poor immunogenic properties of NB, the success of antibody-based immunotherapy and radioimmunotherapy directed at single targets (eg, GD2 and B7-H3) is both encouraging and surprising, given that most solid tumor antibodies that use Fc-dependent mechanisms or radioimmunotargeting have largely failed. Here, we summarize the current information on the immunologic properties of this tumor, its potential immunotherapeutic targets, and novel antibody-based strategies on the horizon.

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