Gastrostomy and Tracheostomy After Complete Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot in Children With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020 Sep;21(9):e776-e781. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002339.


Objectives: Caring for a child with gastrostomy and/or tracheostomy can cause measurable parental stress. It is generally known that children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are at greater risk of requiring gastrostomy or tracheostomy after heart surgery, although the magnitude of that risk after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot has not been described. We sought to determine the degree to which 22q11.2 deletion is associated with postoperative gastrostomy and/or tracheostomy after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Pediatric Health Information System.

Patients: Children undergoing complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot (ventricular septal defect closure and relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction) from 2003 to 2016. Patients were excluded if they had pulmonary atresia, other congenital heart defects, and/or genetic diagnoses other than 22q11.2 deletion.

Measurements and main results: Two groups were formed on the basis of 22q11.2 deletion status. Outcomes were postoperative tracheostomy and postoperative gastrostomy. Bivariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis at 150 days postoperatively were performed. There were 4,800 patients, of which 317 (7%) had a code for 22q11.2 deletion. There were no significant differences between groups for age at surgery or sex. Patients with 22q11.2 deletion had significantly higher rates of gastrostomy (18% vs 5%; p < 0.001) and higher rates of tracheostomy (7% vs 1%; p < 0.001); there was no difference for mortality. Kaplan-Meier analyses also showed higher rates of gastrostomy (p = 0.024) and tracheostomy (p = 0.037).

Conclusions: The present study establishes rates of postoperative gastrostomy and tracheostomy in children with 22q11.2 deletion after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot. These data are useful to clinicians for providing families with preoperative counseling.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • DiGeorge Syndrome* / complications
  • DiGeorge Syndrome* / surgery
  • Gastrostomy
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tetralogy of Fallot* / surgery
  • Tracheostomy