Objectives: Combination antiretroviral therapy has largely restored the lifespan of persons living with HIV. Data suggest early comorbidities of aging in this population. Past studies focused on men; limited data exist regarding the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in women living with HIV (WLWH). We investigated the prevalence of cardiometabolic abnormalities among WLWH and HIV-negative women in the Children and Women: Antiretrovirals and Markers of Aging (CARMA) cohort, and their relationships to cellular aging markers.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of nonpregnant female patients (156 WLWH and 133 HIV-negative controls, aged 12-69 years) enrolled in CARMA between 2013 and 2017. The Framingham risk score (FRS) and the prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and dyslipideamia were determined using self-report, anthropometrics, chart review and laboratory data. Cellular aging was determined by assessing leukocyte telomere length and blood mitochondrial DNA content. Diagnoses were based on current Canadian guidelines and definitions.
Results: HIV-infected status was associated with dyslipidaemia [odds ratio (OR) 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69-5.01], but not diabetes, higher FRS, hypertension or metabolic syndrome. The median age was 43.5 [interquartile range (IQR) 36.8-50.9] years in WLWH and 46.2 (IQR 30.3-54.9) years in HIV-negative controls. WLWH were less likely to be menopausal or use alcohol, and more often had hepatitis C virus infection or a current or past smoking history. Lower mitochondrial DNA content was associated with metabolic syndrome; no other associations were noted between cardiometabolic abnormalities and markers of cellular aging.
Conclusions: Despite their relatively young age, almost two-thirds of WLWH had dyslipidaemia, a significantly greater proportion than in controls. Strategies to address dyslipidaemia and decrease smoking rates may improve long-term outcomes among WLWH.
Keywords: HIV; aging; dyslipidaemia; metabolic disease; women.
© 2020 British HIV Association.