The comparative study between the mixing behavior of two binary mixtures of cocoa butter (CB)/tristearin (TS) and cocoa butter (CB)/coconut oil (CO) was investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC profile for CB/TS blends resulted in a monotectic temperature-concentration (T-X) phase diagram, whereas a phase diagram of eutectic type was observed for CB/CO blends at 65 wt % of CO and 35 wt % CB; this suggests that the eutectic crystal can be formed when the saturated fat (blue = CO) is smaller in size compared to monounsaturated fat (orange = CB), whereas, for similar and larger size (red = TS) to CB, phase separation under crystallization is likely to occur (as shown in the graphical abstract). In order to understand the interaction between the binary systems, the profile of the phase diagram was fitted with Bragg-Williams approximation for estimation of the nonideality mixing parameter. Moreover, the morphology of the two different systems by polarized light microscopy (PLM) also depicted the variations in phase behavior by showing a significant change in CB morphology from spherulitic, grainy to granular and needlelike after the addition of TS and CO, respectively. Our findings emphasize the fundamental understanding of the interaction of bulk fat/fat and fat/oil system.
Keywords: DSC; PLM; cocoa butter; coconut oil; mixing behavior; morphology; phase diagram; tristearin.