Background Clinical pharmacists can play an important role in chronic diseases management, but limited attention has been given to the pharmaceutical care of nephrotic syndrome patients. Objective To evaluate the impact of inpatient pharmaceutical care on medication adherence and clinical outcomes in nephrotic syndrome patients. Setting A tertiary first-class hospital in Shanxi, China. Method We conducted a randomized controlled trial on 61 patients with nephrotic syndrome. The intervention consisted of medication reconciliation, pharmacist visits every day, discharge counseling and education by 2 certificated pharmacist, while the control group received usual care. Assessments were performed at baseline, month-1, month-3 and month-6 after hospital discharge. Main outcome measure medication adherence and patients' clinical outcomes. Results 61 patient completed the trial. Baseline variables were comparable between the two groups. The decline in medication adherence of patients in the intervention group after hospital discharge was restrained effectively at month-6 (p < 0.05). However, the groups did not differ in clinical outcomes, medication discrepancies, adverse drug events and readmission rate. The rate of return visits of the pharmaceutical care group was higher at month-1 and month-6 after discharge (p < 0.05). Conclusion Pharmaceutical inpatient care improved adherence in patients with nephrotic syndrome after hospital discharge, the effect of the intervention on clinical outcomes, medication discrepancies, adverse drug events or readmission was insignificant. These results are promising but should be tested in other settings prior to broader dissemination.