The prevalence of depression in patients living with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ir J Med Sci. 2020 Nov;189(4):1243-1252. doi: 10.1007/s11845-020-02208-4. Epub 2020 Mar 14.


Depression is a common disorder in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). There are a variety of studies estimated the prevalence of depression in these patients. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression in patients with ICD.

Methods: In the present study, we conducted a systematic review of studies published in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science (WoS), Medline, and EMBASE without any time filtration to obtain studies investigated the prevalence of depression in patients with ICD. Search terms consisted of "Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator(s)" in combination with "depression," "depressive," "prevalence," "implanted cardioverter," "implantable," and "implantable defibrillator."

Results: We identified 15 relevant studies, comprising data from 10,182 patients with ICD from whom 2400 (23.58%) (95% CI, 15.36-31.79) had depression. The results of the subgroup analysis showed that the prevalence of depression among middle-aged patients (28.58% with confidence interval of 95%, 21.51-35.65) was higher than elderly patients (22.23% with confidence interval of 95%, 11.21-33.24) and it was not significantly correlated with the mean age of samples (P = 0.255), sample size (P = 0.686), and the publication date (P = 0.784), although there was a significant correlation between the prevalence of depression and the quality of articles so that the prevalence was decreasing with an increase in the quality (P = 0.046).

Conclusion: Around 1 in 4 patients with ICD (23.58%) experiences depression progression after an ICD placement. This prevalence is comparable to that in the general population, and close to that of the patients with common chronic diseases.

Keywords: Depression; Implantable cardioverter defibrillator; Prevalence.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Defibrillators, Implantable / adverse effects*
  • Defibrillators, Implantable / psychology*
  • Depression / etiology*
  • Depression / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence