Polytetrafluoroethylene frontalis suspension in blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia: an effective and well-tolerated adjunct to botulinum toxin therapy

Orbit. 2021 Feb;40(1):39-43. doi: 10.1080/01676830.2020.1739081. Epub 2020 Mar 16.


Purpose: To report the efficacy of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) frontalis suspension for blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia and postoperative botulinum toxin requirements. Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients with blepharospasm and eyelid apraxia who underwent frontalis suspension. The primary outcome was a surgical success, defined by surgeon- and patient-reported success in postoperative eyelid opening. Comparative statistical analyses of botulinum toxin dosage and treatment intervals were performed amongst patients before and after frontalis suspension ptosis repair. Results: Five patients (10 eyelids) met the study criteria, of which 40% were female. Mean age was 63.2 years. All patients had successful surgical outcomes based on physician-reported and patient reported satisfaction with the postoperative eyelid opening. Average follow-up was 14 months. Preoperative botulinum toxin treatments averaged 80.4 units (range 32-110, SD 33.2) to the periocular region over an average of 9.6-week intervals. Postoperative botulinum toxin treatments averaged 61.4 units (range 24-110, SD 34.7) to the periocular region over an overage of 9.8-week intervals. No patients experienced postoperative exposure keratopathy, extrusion of the sling, or postoperative infection. Conclusions: Frontalis suspension using PTFE suture in the setting of blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia was found to be a safe and effective procedure. Frontalis suspension in this population is not a substitute for botulinum toxin treatment but may allow for reduced treatment dosage. Frontalis suspension appears to increase patient functionality with improved eyelid opening in patients with blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia.

Keywords: Blepharospasm; botulinum toxin; eyelid apraxia; frontalis sling.

MeSH terms

  • Apraxias*
  • Blepharoptosis* / surgery
  • Blepharospasm* / drug therapy
  • Botulinum Toxins* / therapeutic use
  • Eyelids / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene / therapeutic use*
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
  • Botulinum Toxins