Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, arising from cells of the endocrine system, with various clinical behaviors. Although these neoplasms are considered rare, a significant increase in the incidence and detectability of NET has been noted in many epidemiological studies in recent years. Among the various therapeutic options, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), using somatostatine has been shown to be highly effective and a well-tolerated therapy, improving survival parameters. The current use of radionuclides for PRRT is β-emitters. Due to hypoxia cancer tissue could be resistant for β-emitters. Quite long penetration range had a significant impact on side effects. α-particles with higher energy and shorter penetration range in comparison to β-particles, have distinct advantages for use in targeted therapy. The clinical experience with somatostatine based targeted α therapy (TAT) in NET showed very promising results even in patienicts refractory to treatment with β-emitters. This article summarizes current developments in preclinical and clinical investigation on TAT in NET.
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