The Study of Biological Activity of Transformation Products of Diclofenac and Its Interaction With Chlorogenic Acid

J Environ Sci (China). 2020 May;91:128-141. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2020.01.022. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Abstract

In the present work we compared the biological activity of DCF, 4'-OHDCF and 5-OHDCF as molecules of most biodegradation pathways of DCF and selected transformation products (2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid; 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 2,6-dichloroaniline) which are produced during AOPs, such as ozonation and UV/H2O2. We also examined the interaction of DCF with chlorogenic acid (CGA). CGA is commonly used in human diet and entering the environment along with waste mainly from the processing and brewing of coffee and it can be toxic for microorganisms included in activated sludge. In the present experiment the evaluation of following parameters was performed: E. coli K-12 cells viability, growth inhibition of E. coli K-12 culture, LC50 and mortality of Chironomus aprilinus, genotoxicity, sodA promoter induction and ROS generation. In addition the reactivity of E. coli SM recA:luxCDABE biosensor strain in wastewater matrices was measured. The results showed the influence of DCF, 4'-OHDCF and 5-OHDCF on E. coli K-12 cells viability and bacteria growth, comparable to AOPs by-products. The highest toxicity was observed for selected, tested AOPs by-products, in comparison to the DCF, 4'-OHDCF and 5-OHDCF. Genotoxicity assay indicated that 2,6-dichloroaniline (AOPs by-product) had the highest toxic effect. The oxidative stress assays revealed that the highest level of ROS generation and sodA promoter induction were obtained for DCF, 4'-OHDCF and 5-OHDCF, compared to other tested compounds. We have also found that there is an interaction between chlorogenic acid and DCF, which resulted in increased toxicity of the mixture of the both compounds to E. coli K-12, comparable to parent chemicals. The strongest response of E. coli SM biosensor strain with recA:luxCDABE genetic construct in filtered treated wastewaters, comparable to control sample was noticed. It indicates, that E. coli SM recA:luxCDABE biosensor strains is a good tool for bacteria monitoring in wastewater environment. Due to toxicity and biological activity of tested DCF transformation products, there is a need to use additional wastewater treatment systems for wastewater contaminated with pharmaceutical residues.

Keywords: Advances oxidation processes (AOPs); Biodegradation; Chlorogenic acid; Diclofenac; Microbial biosensors; Wastewaters.