Prevalence of Comorbidities and Its Effects in Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Int J Infect Dis. 2020 May;94:91-95. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Abstract

Background: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China; the epidemic is more widespread than initially estimated, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries.

Aims: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of comorbidities in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients and the risk of underlying diseases in severe patients compared to non-severe patients.

Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science through February 25, 2020. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random-effects models.

Results: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 1 576 infected patients. The results showed the most prevalent clinical symptom was fever (91.3%, 95% CI: 86-97%), followed by cough (67.7%, 95% CI: 59-76%), fatigue (51.0%, 95% CI: 34-68%) and dyspnea (30.4%, 95% CI: 21-40%). The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (21.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-27.2%) and diabetes (9.7%, 95% CI: 7.2-12.2%), followed by cardiovascular disease (8.4%, 95% CI: 3.8-13.8%) and respiratory system disease (1.5%, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1%). When compared between severe and non-severe patients, the pooled OR of hypertension, respiratory system disease, and cardiovascular disease were 2.36 (95% CI: 1.46-3.83), 2.46 (95% CI: 1.76-3.44) and 3.42 (95% CI: 1.88-6.22) respectively.

Conclusion: We assessed the prevalence of comorbidities in the COVID-19 patients and found that underlying disease, including hypertension, respiratory system disease and cardiovascular disease, may be risk factors for severe patients compared with non-severe patients.

Keywords: COVID-19; Clinical characteristics; Comorbidities; Epidemiology; Meta-analysis; SARS-CoV-2.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Betacoronavirus*
  • Comorbidity
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Cough
  • Fever / etiology
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2