Failure of pre-exposure prophylaxis with daily tenofovir/emtricitabine and the scenario of delayed HIV seroconversion

Int J Infect Dis. 2020 May:94:41-43. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.014. Epub 2020 Mar 13.


Failure of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine may occur despite perfect adherence, although this is uncommon. Failure results in breakthrough HIV infection. Delayed seroconversion associated with antiretroviral use may complicate the picture, causing uncertainties in interpreting adherence patterns for establishing the true cause of PrEP failure.

Keywords: Antiretroviral; HIV seroconversion; PrEP failure; Pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Emtricitabine / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • HIV Seropositivity*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis*
  • Seroconversion / drug effects
  • Tenofovir / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Failure
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Tenofovir
  • Emtricitabine