Association of vitamin D in patients with periodontitis: A cross-sectional study

J Periodontal Res. 2020 Oct;55(5):602-612. doi: 10.1111/jre.12746. Epub 2020 Mar 16.


Background and objective: Vitamin D has been considered to possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity, which may be a link for the known interaction of periodontitis (CP) and coronary heart disease (CHD). This study investigated the association between serum vitamin D levels and periodontitis in patients with CP and with CHD. Furthermore, the objective was to determine whether periodontitis and CHD had an impact on serum vitamin D levels.

Material and methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a total of 46 patients with CP, 45 patients with CHD, 45 patients with both CP and CHD, and 43 healthy patients were enrolled in the present study.

Results: Patients in the CP (17.4 ± 5.2 ng/mL) and in the CP + CHD (16.5 ± 5.6 ng/mL) group presented a significantly lower mean serum level of 25(OH)vitamin D compared to patients in the CHD (24.6 ± 3.7 ng/mL) and healthy control groups (29.9 ± 5.4 ng/mL) (P < .001). 25(OH)vitamin D levels were positively correlated with the number of teeth and negatively with C-reactive protein (CRP) and all periodontal parameters (P < .001). In all patients, there was a proportional increase of 25(OH)vitamin D levels with a progressive increase in number of teeth (P-trend <.001) while there were a proportional decrease in 25(OH)vitamin D levels with a progressive increase in clinical attachment level (CAL, P-trend = .001), probing depth (PD, P-trend = .006), and bleeding sites (BOP, P-trend <.001) levels.

Conclusion: Patients with CP and CP + CHD presented significantly lower serum levels of vitamin D compared to CHD and healthy controls. Moreover, the presence of CP negatively influenced serum vitamin D levels.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease; coronary disease; cross-sectional studies; periodontal disease; vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Chronic Periodontitis* / blood
  • Chronic Periodontitis* / complications
  • Coronary Disease* / complications
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Periodontitis* / blood
  • Periodontitis* / complications
  • Vitamin D* / blood


  • Vitamin D
  • C-Reactive Protein