H 2CHX hox: Rigid Cyclohexane-Reinforced Nonmacrocyclic Chelating Ligand for [ nat/67/68 Ga]Ga 3

Inorg Chem. 2020 Apr 6;59(7):4895-4908. doi: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c00168. Epub 2020 Mar 16.


A rigid chiral acyclic chelator H2CHXhox was synthesized and evaluated for Ga3+-based radiopharmaceutical applications; it was compared to the previously reported hexadentate H2hox to determine the effect of a backbone reinforced from adding a chiral 1S,2S-trans-cyclohexane on metal complex stability, kinetic inertness, and in vivo pharmacokinetics. NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculation revealed that [Ga(CHXhox)]+ showed a very similar coordination geometry to that of [Ga(hox)]+, and only one isomer in solution was observed by NMR spectroscopy. Solution studies showed that the modification results in a significant improvement in the exceptionally high thermodynamic stability of [Ga(hox)]+ with a 1.56 log unit increase in stability constant (logKML = 35.91(1)). More importantly, H2CHXhox showed very fast Ga3+ complexation at physiological pH 7.4, and acid-assisted Ga3+ complex dissociation kinetic studies (pH 1) in comparison with H2hox revealed a 50-fold increase of the dissociation half-life time from 73 min to 58 h. Fluorescence microscopy imaging study confirmed its cellular uptake and accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. MTT studies indicated a quite low cytotoxicity of [Ga(CHXhox)]+ over a large concentration range. Dynamic PET imaging studies showed no accumulation in muscle, lungs, bone, and brain, suggesting no release of free Ga3+ ions. [68Ga][Ga(CHXhox)]+ is cleared from the mouse via hepatobiliary and renal pathways. Compared to [68Ga][Ga(hox)]+, the increased lipophilicity of [68Ga][Ga(CHXhox)]+ enhanced heart and liver uptake and decreased kidney clearance. [67Ga][Ga(CHXhox)]+ SPECT/CT imaging and biodistribution study revealed good clearance from liver to gallbladder after 90 min and finally into feces after 5 h. No decomposition or transchelation was observed over the 5 h study. These results confirmed H2CHXhox to be an obvious improvement over H2hox and an excellent candidate in this new "ox" family for the development of radiopharmaceutical compounds.