Objective: Unhealthy life-style factors have adverse outcomes in cardiac patients. However, only a minority of patients succeed to change unhealthy habits. Personalization of interventions may result in critical improvements. The current randomized controlled trial provides a proof of concept of the personalized Do Cardiac Health Advanced New Generation Ecosystem (Do CHANGE) 2 intervention and evaluates effects on a) life-style and b) quality of life over time.
Methods: Cardiac patients (n = 150; mean age = 61.97 ± 11.61 years; 28.7% women; heart failure, n = 33; coronary artery disease, n = 50; hypertension, n = 67) recruited from Spain and the Netherlands were randomized to either the "Do CHANGE 2" or "care as usual" group. The Do CHANGE 2 group received ambulatory health-behavior assessment technologies for 6 months combined with a 3-month behavioral intervention program. Linear mixed-model analysis was used to evaluate the intervention effects, and latent class analysis was used for secondary subgroup analysis.
Results: Linear mixed-model analysis showed significant intervention effects for life-style behavior (Finteraction(2,138.5) = 5.97, p = .003), with improvement of life-style behavior in the intervention group. For quality of life, no significant main effect (F(1,138.18) = .58, p = .447) or interaction effect (F(2,133.1) = 0.41, p = .67) was found. Secondary latent class analysis revealed different subgroups of patients per outcome measure. The intervention was experienced as useful and feasible.
Conclusions: The personalized eHealth intervention resulted in significant improvements in life-style. Cardiac patients and health care providers were also willing to engage in this personalized digital behavioral intervention program. Incorporating eHealth life-style programs as part of secondary prevention would be particularly useful when taking into account which patients are most likely to benefit.
Trial registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03178305.