Introduction: Otitis media (OM) is a spectrum of infectious and inflammatory diseases that involve the middle ear. It includes acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM).
Areas covered: This manuscript discusses some of the emerging and unsolved problems regarding OM, and some of the newly developed prophylactic and therapeutic medical measures.
Expert opinion: In recent years, considerable progress in the knowledge of OM physiopathology has been made. However, although extremely common, diseases included under OM have not been adequately studied, and many areas of development, evolution and possible treatments of these pathologies are not defined. It is necessary that these deficiencies be quickly overcome if we want to reduce the total burden of a group of diseases that still have extremely high medical, social and economic relevance.
Keywords: Acute otitis media; antibiotic therapy; chronic suppurative otitis media; otitis media with effusion; vaccine.