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. 2020 Mar 16;10(1):4781.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-61665-0.

Stereotactic Cortical Atlas of the Domestic Canine Brain

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Stereotactic Cortical Atlas of the Domestic Canine Brain

Philippa J Johnson et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The domestic canine (canis familiaris) is a growing novel model for human neuroscientific research. Unlike rodents and primates, they demonstrate unique convergent sociocognitive skills with humans, are highly trainable and able to undergo non-invasive experimental procedures without restraint, including fMRI. In addition, the gyrencephalic structure of the canine brain is more similar to that of human than rodent models. The increasing use of dogs for non-invasive neuroscience studies has generating a need for a standard canine cortical atlas that provides common spatial referencing and cortical segmentation for advanced neuroimaging data processing and analysis. In this manuscript we create and make available a detailed MRI-based cortical atlas for the canine brain. This atlas includes a population template generated from 30 neurologically and clinically normal non-brachycephalic dogs, tissue segmentation maps and a cortical atlas generated from Jerzy Kreiner's myeloarchitectonic-based histology atlas. The provided cortical parcellation includes 234 priors from frontal, sensorimotor, parietal, temporal, occipital, cingular and subcortical regions. The atlas was validated using an additional canine cohort with variable cranial conformations. This comprehensive cortical atlas provides a reference standard for canine brain research and will improve and standardize processing and data analysis and interpretation in functional and structural MRI research.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Method flow chart: Flow chart demonstrating the pre-processing, template creation and cranial conformation compatibility testing steps that were performed. (n = number of subjects, ANTs = advanced normalization tools, FAST = FMRIB’s automated segmentation tool, MNI = Montreal Neurological Institute). This figure was created using FSLeyes (version 2.1 https://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/FSLeyes), OsiriX MD (version 11.0 https://www.osirix-viewer.com/osirix/osirix-md/) and Microsoft Powerpoint (version 16.16.19. www.microsoft.com).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Gyral anatomy: Demonstrates the gyral surface anatomy of the final population average template and correlates that to a mesaticephalic anatomic specimen. The anatomic specimen underwent emersion fixation in 10% buffered formalin after removal from the cranium (g. = gyrus, cd. = caudal, rost. = rostral). This figure was created using FSLeyes (version 2.1 https://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/FSLeyes) and Microsoft Powerpoint (version 16.16.19. www.microsoft.com).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Jaccard similarity after aligned, linear and non-linear registration: Provides a visual demonstration of the overlap of an individual subject’s brain data to the population average template (red outline) after alignment, linear and non-linear registration. A single sample subject from each cranial conformation group is provided. The mean similarity index for each subject was plotted in each cranial conformation group, according to registration technique (aligned = yellow, linear = blue, and non-linear = red). A post hoc Tukey multiple comparisons of means identified statistically significant difference in similarity index between aligned and linear and aligned and non-linear techniques in the brachycephalic group and between aligned and non-linear techniques in the mesaticephalic group. Jacobian warping after non-linear registration: Provides a surface heat map (range 0.0–0.8) demonstrating the degree of warping for a single representative subject for each cranial conformation group. The warping metric used is the log demeaned absolute Jacobian determinant for each voxel. The mean Jacobian warping metric for each subject was plotted within each cranial conformation group in the boxplot on the right side. These figures demonstrate that the highest degree of warping was present within the brachycephalic group. This figure was created using FSLeyes (version 2.1 https://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/FSLeyes), microGL (version 2.1 www.mricro.com) and Microsoft Powerpoint (version 16.16.19. www.microsoft.com).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Lobar divisions: Depicts how the brain was divided into lobar regions according to that described by Jerzy Kriener. These regions included frontal (red), parietal (blue), sensorimotor (cian), temporal (yellow), occipital (green), cingulate (mauve), and subcortical (pink). This figure was created using FSLeyes (version 2.1 https://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/FSLeyes), ITKsnap (version 3.8.0 www.itksnap.org), Affinity designer (version 1.8 www.affinity.serif.com) and Microsoft Powerpoint (version 16.16.19. www.microsoft.com).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Cortical atlas in transverse sections: Demonstrates the cortical atlas and a corresponding anatomic specimen in transverse section at frontal (A), caudate nuclei (B) and mid-thalamic (C) levels. The anatomic specimen underwent plasticization of the vasculature and fixation. The brain was transected and photographed in-situ within the cranium to maintain normal anatomic structure. This figure was created using FSLeyes (version 2.1 https://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/FSLeyes), ITKsnap (version 3.8.0 www.itksnap.org), Affinity designer (version 1.8 www.affinity.serif.com) and Microsoft Powerpoint (version 16.16.19. www.microsoft.com).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Cortical atlas in transverse sections: Demonstrates the cortical atlas and a corresponding anatomic specimen in transverse section at caudal thalamic (A), hippocampal (B) and occipital (C) levels. The anatomic specimen underwent plasticization of the vasculature and fixation. The brain was transected and photographed in-situ within the cranium to maintain normal anatomic structure. This figure was created using FSLeyes (version 2.1 https://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/FSLeyes), ITKsnap (version 3.8.0 www.itksnap.org), Affinity designer (version 1.8 www.affinity.serif.com) and Microsoft Powerpoint (version 16.16.19. www.microsoft.com).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Cortical atlas in sagittal and dorsal sections: Demonstrates the cortical atlas and a corresponding anatomic specimen in dorsal (A) and sagittal (B) section. The anatomic specimen brain underwent immersion fixation before transection and photography. This figure was created using FSLeyes (version 2.1 https://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/FSLeyes), ITKsnap (version 3.8.0 www.itksnap.org), Affinity designer (version 1.8 www.affinity.serif.com) and Microsoft Powerpoint (version 16.16.19. www.microsoft.com).
Figure 8
Figure 8
Cortical atlas in 3-dimensions: Demonstrates the 3-dimensional figures of the cortical atlas in lateral (A), dorsal (B) and oblique (C) and frontal (D) orientations. This figure was created using FSLeyes (version 2.1 https://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/FSLeyes), ITKsnap (version 3.8.0 www.itksnap.org), Affinity designer (version 1.8 www.affinity.serif.com) and Microsoft Powerpoint (version 16.16.19. www.microsoft.com).

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