Validation of the pediatric stroke outcome measure for classifying overall neurological deficit

Pediatr Res. 2020 Aug;88(2):234-242. doi: 10.1038/s41390-020-0842-5. Epub 2020 Mar 16.


Background: The pediatric stroke outcome measure (PSOM) is a standardized, disease-specific outcome measure. We aimed to validate the overall classification of neurological deficit severity using PSOM.

Methods: We identified 367 neonates/children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) (Derivation Cohort). We analyzed the PSOM subscales (scored as 0 [no deficit], 0.5 [minimal/mild deficit; normal function], 1 [moderate deficit; slowing function], or 2 [severe deficit; missing function]) to derive severity levels using latent class analysis (LCA). We validated a severity classification scheme (PSOM-SCS) in: (a) children who had Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI; n = 63) and/or the Pediatric Quality-of-Life Inventory (PedsQL; n = 97) scored; and (b) an external cohort (AIS; n = 102) with concurrently scored modified Rankin Scale (mRS), King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head-Injury (KOSCHI) and PSOM.

Results: Within the Derivation Cohort, LCA identified three severity levels: "normal/mild," "moderate," and "severe" (83.7%, 13.3%, and 3%, respectively). We developed severity classification based on PSOM subscale scores: "normal/mild"-normal function in all domains or slowing in one domain, "moderate"-slowing in ≥2 domains or missing function in one domain, and "severe"-missing function in ≥2 domains or slowing in ≥1 plus missing in one domain. PEDI and PedsQL both differed significantly across the severity groups. PSOM-SCS displayed high concordance with mRS (agreement coefficient [AC2] = 0.88) and KOSCHI (AC2 = 0.79).

Conclusion: The PSOM-SCS constitutes a valid tool for classifying overall neurological severity emphasizing function and encompassing the full range of severity in pediatric stroke.

Impact: Arithmetic summing of the PSOM subscales scores to assess severity classification is inadequate.The prior severity classification using PSOM overestimates poor outcomes.Three distinct severity profiles using PSOM subscales are identified.The PSOM-SCS is in moderate to excellent agreement with other disability measures.PSOM-SCS offers a valid tool for classifying the overall neurological deficit severity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / classification
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / diagnosis
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Hospitals, Pediatric
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Nervous System Diseases / classification
  • Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality of Life
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Stroke / classification
  • Stroke / diagnosis*
  • Treatment Outcome