Recent efforts in brain tumor research have been directed towards the modulation of the immune system for therapeutic interventions. Several human cancers, including gliomas, are infiltrated with immune cell types-including neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells-that contribute to tumor progression, invasiveness, and treatment resistance. The role of tumor-associated neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer biology remains elusive, as these cells can exert a multitude of pro-tumor and antitumor effects. In this review, we provide the current understanding and novel insights on the role of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in glioma progression and treatment resistance, as well as the mechanisms of pleiotropic behaviors in these cells during disease progression, with an emphasis on possible strategies to reprogram these cells towards their antitumor actions.
Keywords: glioma progression; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; neutrophils; treatment resistance; tumor-associated neutrophils.