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. 2020 Mar 13;8(3):403.
doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8030403.

Differential Analysis of Proteins Involved in Ester Metabolism in Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains During the Second Fermentation in Sparkling Wine Elaboration

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Free PMC article

Differential Analysis of Proteins Involved in Ester Metabolism in Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains During the Second Fermentation in Sparkling Wine Elaboration

Maria Del Carmen González-Jiménez et al. Microorganisms. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The aromatic metabolites derived from yeast metabolism determine the characteristics of aroma and taste in wines, so they are considered of great industrial interest. Volatile esters represent the most important group and therefore, their presence is extremely important for the flavor profile of the wine. In this work, we use and compare two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains: P29, typical of sparkling wines resulting of second fermentation in a closed bottle; G1, a flor yeast responsible for the biological aging of Sherry wines. We aimed to analyze and compare the effect of endogenous CO2 overpressure on esters metabolism with the proteins related in these yeast strains, to understand the yeast fermentation process in sparkling wines. For this purpose, protein identification was carried out using the OFFGEL fractionator and the LTQ Orbitrap, following the detection and quantification of esters with gas chromatograph coupled to flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and stir-bar sorptive extraction, followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-TD-GC-MS). Six acetate esters, fourteen ethyl esters, and five proteins involved in esters metabolism were identified. Moreover, significant correlations were established between esters and proteins. Both strains showed similar behavior. According to these results, the use of this flor yeast may be proposed for the sparkling wine production and enhance the diversity and the typicity of sparkling wine yeasts.

Keywords: CO2 overpressure; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; esters; flor yeast1; proteins; second fermentation; sparkling wine.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Heat map of the group of metabolites and proteins for flor yeast (A) and the P29 strain (B). *The dendrograms that indicate the grouping of variables and can be visualized in the left of the diagram. The key shown indicates the tones associated with values in the cells. In order to make full use of the shadow information, the data are normalized. The average of each condition is represented in the first top row: base wine, BW; middle of the fermentation without CO2 overpressure, MFP (−), middle of the fermentation with CO2 overpressure, MFP (+); final fermentation without CO2 overpressure, EFP (−); final fermentation with CO2 overpressure, EFP (+).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Matrix resulting from the analysis of correlations made for the condition without pressure in flor yeast (A) and in the P29 strain (B) with a level of significance of 95%.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Matrix resulting from the analysis of correlations made for the CO2 overpressure condition in flor yeast (A) and in the P29 strain (B) with a confidence level of 95%.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Summary scheme of metabolites and proteins that presented a higher concentration in each study concentration and are involved with the metabolism of esters for flor yeast (A) and the strain P29 (B). The color of the asterisks and boxes represent the condition in which the metabolites and proteins were identified, respectively. Each condition is represented by a color: red for the base wine, BW; green for the middle of the fermentation without CO2 overpressure, MFP (−); dark blue for half fermentation with CO2 overpressure, MFP (+); light blue final fermentation without CO2 overpressure, EFP (−); pink for final fermentation with CO2 overpressure, EFP (+).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Matrix of correlations established between esters and fatty acids in the condition without CO2 overpressure for flor yeast (A) and the P29 strain (B).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Matrix of correlations established between esters and fatty acids in the CO2 overpressure condition for the flor yeast (A) and the P29 strain (B).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Principal component analysis, PCA. *The different compounds were identified by numbers as follows: 1. Ethyl acetate, 2. Methyl acetate, 3. Ethyl propanoate, 4. Ethyl isobutanoate, 5. Isobutyl acetate, 6. Ethyl 2-methyl butanoate, 7. Ethyl 3-methyl butanoate, 8. Isoamyl acetate, 9. Hexyl acetate, 10. Ethyl heptanoate, 11. Phenylethyl acetate, 12. Ethyl octanoate, 13. Ethyl 2-methyl octanoate, 14. Ethyl decanoate, 15. Ethyl tetradecanoate, 16. Ethyl lactate, 17. Hexanoic acid, 18. Octanoic acid, 19. Tetradecanoic acid, 20. Dodecanoic acid, 21. Eht1p, 22. Eeb1p, 23. Atf1p, 24. Atf2p. The blue color for the P29 strain and green for the G1 strain (flor yeast) were used. Proteins (21–24) were represented in red, fatty acid esters (1–16) in dark yellow and fatty acids (17–20) in dark brown.

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