Advanced Ankle and Foot Sonoanatomy: Imaging Beyond the Basics

Diagnostics (Basel). 2020 Mar 14;10(3):160. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics10030160.


Ankle/foot pain is a common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Currently, due to the complex anatomy, the diagnosis and management of the underlying musculoskeletal disorders are extremely challenging. Nowadays, high-resolution ultrasound has emerged as the first-line tool to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders. There have been several existing protocols describing the fundamental sonoanatomy of ankle/foot joints. However, there are certain anatomic structures (e.g., Lisfranc ligament complex or Baxter nerve) which are also clinically important. As they are rarely elaborated in the available literature, a comprehensive review is necessary. In this regard, the present article aims to brief the regional anatomy, illustrate the scanning techniques, and emphasize the clinical relevance of the ankle/foot region.

Keywords: anatomy; ankle; foot; pain; ultrasound.

Publication types

  • Review