Tracking the Nonenrolled: Lung Cancer Screening Patterns Among Individuals not Accrued to a Clinical Trial

Clin Lung Cancer. 2020 Jul;21(4):326-332. doi: 10.1016/j.cllc.2020.02.010. Epub 2020 Feb 26.


Introduction: For lung cancer screening, the available data are often derived from patients enrolled prospectively in clinical trials. We, therefore, investigated lung cancer screening patterns among individuals eligible for, but not enrolled in, a screening trial.

Patients and methods: From February 2017 through February 2019, we enrolled subjects in a trial examining telephone-based navigation during low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for lung cancer screening. We identified patients for whom LDCT was ordered and who were approached, but not enrolled, in the trial. We categorized nonenrollment as the patient had declined or could not be reached. We compared the characteristics and LDCT completion rates among these groups and the enrolled population using the 2-sample t test and χ2 test.

Results: Of 900 individuals approached for participation (mean age, 62 years; 45% women, 53% black), 447 were enrolled in the screening clinical trial. No significant demographic differences were found between the enrolled and nonenrolled cohorts. Of the 453 individuals not enrolled, 251 (55%) had declined participation and 202 (45%) could not be reached, despite up to 6 attempts. LDCT completion was significantly associated with enrollment status: 81% of enrolled individuals, 73% of individuals who declined participation, and 49% of those who could not be reached (P < .001).

Conclusions: In the present single-center study, demographic factors did not predict for participation in a lung cancer screening trial. Lung cancer screening adherence rates were substantially lower for those not enrolled in a screening trial, especially for those who could not be contacted. These findings may inform the broader implementation of screening programs.

Keywords: Adherence; Communication; Computed tomography; Demographics; Underserved.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Early Detection of Cancer / standards*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Selection*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic / standards*
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods*