Mixed anionic detergent/aliphatic alcohol-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis alters the separation of proteins relative to conventional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

Anal Biochem. 1988 Oct;174(1):337-48. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(88)90555-6.


The order and relative mobility of proteins on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is affected by unknown components that are differentially present in SDS preparations obtained from different sources [J.B. Swaney, G.F. Vande Woude, and H.L. Bachrach (1974) Anal. Biochem. 58, 337-346]. The modified separation capabilities of such SDS preparations are useful but the use of this phenomenon in a controlled manner requires that the components responsible for the altered separation be identified. Accordingly, this paper describes a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system [mixed alcohol/detergent-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (MAD-PAGE)] that employs a mixture of alcohol and detergent instead of SDS alone to modify and enhance protein separation relative to conventional SDS-PAGE. A defined mixture consisting of four sulfated alkyl detergents (dodecyl sulfate, tetradecyl sulfate, hexadecyl sulfate, octadecyl sulfate) as well as the four alcohols of corresponding aliphatic chain length was found to be effective at duplicating the electrophoretic effect of USP-grade SDS and thus changed the relative order and position of polypeptides on electrophoresis relative to conventional SDS-PAGE. This method serves as an adjunct to conventional SDS-PAGE by providing another means of resolving proteins that are not normally resolved by SDS-PAGE. Further, it was found that MAD-PAGE is capable of resolving the NS1 protein of influenza virus into three fractions, whereas conventional SDS-PAGE yields one electrophoretic species. Reelectrophoresis of these novel NS1 bands by conventional SDS-PAGE indicated that they were not modified during MAD-PAGE and probably represented distinct molecular forms present in infected cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Alcohols
  • Detergents
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel / methods*
  • Influenza A virus / analysis
  • Influenza A virus / classification
  • Proteins / isolation & purification*
  • Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
  • Viral Proteins / classification
  • Viral Proteins / isolation & purification


  • Alcohols
  • Detergents
  • Proteins
  • Viral Proteins
  • Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate