Multiplex Human Malaria Array: Quantifying Antigens for Malaria Rapid Diagnostics

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jun;102(6):1366-1369. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0763.


Malaria antigen detection through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is widely used to diagnose malaria and estimate prevalence. To support more sensitive next-generation RDT development and screen asymptomatic malaria, we developed and evaluated the Q-Plex Human Malaria Array (Quansys Biosciences, Logan, UT), which quantifies the antigens commonly used in RDTs-Plasmodium falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), P. falciparum-specific lactate dehydrogenase (Pf LDH), Plasmodium vivax -specific LDH (Pv LDH), and Pan malaria lactate dehydrogenase (Pan LDH), and human C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of severity in malaria. At threshold levels yielding 99.5% or more diagnostic specificity, diagnostic sensitivities against polymerase chain reaction-confirmed malaria for HRP2, Pf LDH, Pv LDH, and Pan LDH were 92.7%, 71.5%, 46.1%, and 83.8%, respectively. P. falciparum culture strains and samples from Peru indicated that HRP2 and Pf LDH combined improves detection of P. falciparum parasites with hrp2 and hrp3 deletions. This array can be used for antigen-based malaria screening and detecting hrp2/3 deletion mutants of P. falciparum.

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Protozoan / genetics
  • DNA, Protozoan / genetics*
  • Diagnostic Tests, Routine
  • Humans
  • Malaria / diagnosis*
  • Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Plasmodium / genetics*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Species Specificity


  • Antigens, Protozoan
  • DNA, Protozoan