Cardiovascular consequences of parathyroid disorders in adults

Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2021 Jun;82(3-4):151-157. doi: 10.1016/j.ando.2020.02.003. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Abstract

PTH is a metabolic active hormone primarily regulating calcium and phosphate homeostasis in a very tight and short term-manner. Parathyroid disorders in adult patients reflect a variety of different conditions related either to the parathyroid glands itself or to the effects of the secreted hormone. The clinical spectrum varies from the common disease primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) to the orphan conditions pseudohypoparathyroidism (Ps-HypoPT) and chronic hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT). The purpose of this review is to describe the consequences of disturbances in levels or action of PTH for cardiac function and cardiovascular risk in adult patients with these disorders. Most patients with PHPT achieve the diagnose by chance and have minor or no specific symptoms. Still, these patients with mild PHPT do possess cardiovascular (CV) morbidity, however so far not proven ameliorated by surgery in controlled trials. In severe cases, the CV risk is increased and with a potential reversibility by treatment. Patients with Ps-HypoPT have resistance to PTH action, but not necessarily total resistance in all tissues. So far, no clear CV morbidity or risk has been demonstrated, but there are several aspects of interest for further studies. Most patients with HypoPT do get their hormonal deficiency syndrome following neck surgery. These patients do experience multiple symptoms and do have an increased CV-risk before the primary surgery. Based on existing data, their CV mortality do not deviate from the expected when adjusting for the preexisting increased risk. Patients with nonsurgical (NS-) HypoPT do demonstrate increased CV-risk also associated with exposure time. Endocrine disorders with alterations in PTH function have major impact on the cardiovascular system of importance for morbidity and mortality, wherefore management of these specific diseases should be optimized currently, as new data become available, however also avoiding over-treating asymptomatic patients.

Keywords: Calcium; Cardiovascular; Heart; Hyperparathyroidism; Hypoparathyroidism; PTH; Pseudohypoparathyroidism.