Chemical characterization, antioxidant evaluation, and antidiabetic potential of Pinus gerardiana (Pine nuts) extracts

J Food Biochem. 2020 Jun;44(6):e13199. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.13199. Epub 2020 Mar 20.


Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of pine nuts were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and inhibition of alpha-amylase activities. Pine nut extracts were orally administered to alloxan monohydrate-induced diabetes in mice at 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant and inhibition of alpha-amylase activities. Animal studies showed a decline in fasting blood glucose, hyperlipidemia, and weight loss in diabetic mice. The administration of plant extracts decreased the blood glucose level during the oral glucose tolerance test. Histopathological examination showed a decrease in alloxan-induced lesions in the pancreas, liver, and kidney of animals treated with pine nut extracts. Furthermore, pine nut extract ameliorated oxidative stress-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic mice. The presence of quercetin, gallic acid, vanillic acid, benzoic acid, syringic acid, m-coumaric acid, and other phenolic compounds might be related to hypoglycemic, alpha-amylase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antihyperlipidemic potential of pine nut extracts. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Dry fruits are rich in dietary nutrients, minerals, and phytochemicals that can be used to treat and prevent lifestyle disease. Pine nuts are edible and have economic importance in addition to several traditional uses such as diuretic, antiseptic, expectorant, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, and antineuralgic properties. This study was conducted to investigate the pine nut extracts for their antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials using in vitro methods and animal disease model. The findings of the present study suggest that the extracts of Pine nuts may be helpful in treating hyperglycemia during diabetes and prevent its complications such as hepatic damage, nephrotoxicity, weight loss, and hyperlipidemia.

Keywords: HPLC; alpha-amylase; flavonoids; histopathology; oxidative stress; phenolic compounds.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental* / chemically induced
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental* / drug therapy
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Mice
  • Nuts
  • Pinus*


  • Antioxidants
  • Hypoglycemic Agents