Objective: To investigate the possible human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association of both myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG)-associated diseases (MOGAD) and aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-IgG)-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) in the Dutch population with European ancestry to clarify similarities or differences in the immunogenetic background of both diseases.
Methods: Blood samples from patients in the Dutch national MS/NMOSD expert clinic were tested for MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG using a cell-based assay. HLA Class I and II genotyping was performed in 43 MOG-IgG-seropositive and 42 AQP4-IgG-seropositive Dutch patients with European ancestry and compared with those of 5,604 Dutch healthy blood donors.
Results: No significant HLA association was found in MOG-IgG-seropositive patients. The AQP4-IgG-seropositive patients had a significant higher frequency of HLA-A*01 (61.9% vs 33.7%, OR 3.16, 95% CI, 1.707-5.863, p after correction [pc] = 0.0045), HLA-B*08 (61.9% vs 25.6%, OR 4.66, 95% CI, 2.513-8.643, pc < 0.0001), and HLA-DRB1*03 (51.2% vs 27.6%, OR 2.75, 95% CI, 1.495-5.042, pc = 0.0199) compared with controls.
Conclusions: The present study demonstrates differences in the immunogenetic background of MOGAD and AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD. The strong positive association with HLA-A*01, -B*08, and -DRB1*03 is suggestive of a role of this haplotype in the etiology of AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD in patients with European ancestry, whereas in MOGAD no evidence was found for any HLA association in these disorders.
Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.