Objective: To investigate coronary endothelial protection of a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel activator against a period of cardioplegic-hypoxia and reoxygenation (CP-H/R) injury in mice and patients with diabetes (DM) and those without diabetes (nondiabetic [ND]).
Methods: Mouse small coronary arteries/heart endothelial cells (MHECs) and human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) were dissected from the harvested hearts of mice (n = 16/group) and from discarded right atrial tissue samples of patients with DM and without DM (n = 8/group). The SK current density of MHECs was measured. The in vitro small arteries/arterioles, MHECs, and HCAECs were subjected to 60 minutes of CP hypoxia, followed by 60 minutes of oxygenation. Vessels were treated with or without the selective SK activator NS309 for 5 minutes before and during CP hypoxia.
Results: DM and/or CP-H/R significantly inhibited the total SK currents of MHECs and HCAECs and significantly diminished the mouse coronary relaxation response to NS309. Administration of NS309 immediately before and during CP hypoxia significantly improved the recovery of coronary endothelial function, as demonstrated by increased relaxation responses to adenosine 5'-diphosphate and substance P compared with those seen in controls (P < .05). This protective effect was more pronounced in vessels from ND mice and patients compared with DM mice and patients (P < .05). Cell surface membrane SK3 expression was significantly reduced after hypoxia, whereas cytosolic SK3 expression was greater than that of the sham control group (P < .05).
Conclusions: Application of NS309 immediately before and during CP hypoxia protects mouse and human coronary microvasculature against CP-H/R injury, but this effect is diminished in the diabetic coronary microvasculature. SK inhibition/inactivation and/or internalization/redistribution may contribute to CP-H/R-induced coronary endothelial and vascular relaxation dysfunction.
Keywords: SK channels; cardioplegia; coronary microcirculation; diabetes; endothelial function; hypoxia; ischemia.
Copyright © 2020 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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