The mouse CTLA-4 gene has been shown to code for an activated lymphocyte-associated sequence belonging to the Ig gene superfamily. We now report on the molecular cloning and study of the human corresponding gene isolated from a genomic library and designated Hu-CTLA-4. The Hu-CTLA-4 gene exists as a single copy per human haploid genome and maps to band q33 of chromosome 2. It comprises 3 exons notwithstanding the leader sequence. The first exon encodes a V-like domain of 116 amino acids, the second one a hydrophobic putative transmembrane region of 37 amino acids and the third one a 34 amino acid putative cytoplasmic domain. Whereas the overall homology between the human and murine CTLA-4 proteins is 76%, there is, remarkably, a complete identity of their cytoplasmic domains. This complete interspecies conservation comes in support of an important role for this domain in CTLA-4 function.