Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring During Normofractionated Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

Cancer Radiother. 2020 Apr;24(2):99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.canrad.2019.11.001. Epub 2020 Mar 19.


Purpose: During radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa), interfraction and intrafraction movements can lead to decreased target dose coverage and unnecessary over-exposure of organs at risk. New image-guided RT techniques accuracy allows planning target volume (PTV) margins reduction. We aim to assess the feasibility of a kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) to track the prostate during RT.

Methods and materials: Between November 2017 and April 2018, 44 consecutive patients with PCa were included in an intrafraction prostate motion study using the Truebeam Auto Beam Hold® tracking system (Varian Medical Systems, United State) triggered by gold fiducials localization on kilovoltage (kV) imaging. A 5-mm PTV was considered. A significant gating event (SGE) was defined as the occurrence of an automatic beam interruption requiring patient repositioning following the detection of one fiducial outside a 5-mm target area around the marker during more than 45seconds.

Results: Six patients could not benefit from the KIM because of technical issues (loss of one fiducial marker=1, hip prosthesis=4, morbid obesity causing table movements=1). The mean rate of SGE per patient was 14±19%, and the fraction average delivery time was increased by 146±86seconds. For a plan of 39 fractions of 2Gy, the additional radiation dose increased by 0.13±0.09Gy. The mean rates of SGE were 2% and 18% (P=0.002) in patients with planned fraction<90 and>90seconds respectively, showing that duration of the session strongly interfered with prostate intrafraction movements. No other significant clinical and technical parameter was correlated with the occurrence of SGE.

Conclusion: Automated intrafraction kV imaging can effectively perform autobeam holds due to intrafraction movement of the prostate in the large majority of patients. The additional radiation dose and delivery time are acceptable. This technique may be a cost-effective alternative to electromagnetic transponder guidance.

Keywords: ABH; Cancer de la prostate; Fiducials; IGRT; KIM; Mouvements intrafraction; Prostate cancer; Radiotherapy.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Dose Fractionation, Radiation
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Fiducial Markers
  • Gold
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organ Motion*
  • Patient Positioning
  • Prostate / diagnostic imaging*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
  • Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
  • Radiotherapy, Image-Guided / methods*
  • Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods
  • Seminal Vesicles
  • Time Factors
  • Uncertainty


  • Gold