Artificial turf: chemical flux and development of silicone wristband partitioning coefficients

Air Qual Atmos Health. 2019 May;12(5):597-611. doi: 10.1007/s11869-019-00680-1. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Abstract

This work provides the first quantitative measure of in situ flux of semi-volatile contaminants on artificial turf fields. Passive samplers were used to identify gas-phase PAHs and OPAHs not previously reported associated with artificial turf. Utilizing a broad and targeted screen, we assess both artificial turf and from crumb rubber for 1,529 chemicals, including several with known health effects including benzo[c]fluorene. We also report the presence of 25 chemicals that have not yet been reported in artificial turf literature, including some with known effects on human health. This is the first report of bioavailable gas-phase PAH and OPAH concentrations on an outdoor field, to date gas-phase concentrations have only been reported from indoor facilities. Turf air and air were highly correlated at all three sites, and particularly at the recently-installed indoor site. Finally, thermal extraction and silicone passive samplers are highly suitable for larger-scale sampling campaigns that aim for less solvent and sample processing. We demonstrate for the first time that silicone passive samplers can be used to quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals from artificial turf. Co-deploying silicone passive samplers and conventional low density polyethylene, we develop partitioning coefficients that can be used for silicone passive air sampling environmental assessment.

Keywords: LDPE; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; flux; oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; partition coefficients; semi-volatile organic contaminants; silicone.