Highly Efficient Bromide Removal from Shale Gas Produced Water by Unactivated Peroxymonosulfate for Controlling Disinfection Byproduct Formation in Impacted Water Supplies

Environ Sci Technol. 2020 Apr 21;54(8):5186-5196. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b06825. Epub 2020 Apr 8.


Shale gas extraction processes generate a large amount of hypersaline wastewater, whose spills or discharges may significantly increase the bromide levels in downstream water supplies and result in the formation of brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) upon chlorination. Although a few studies have investigated selective bromide removal from produced water, the low removal efficiencies and complex system setups are not desirable. In this study, we examined a simple cost-effective approach for selective bromide removal from produced water relying on the oxidation by unactivated peroxymonosulfate. More than 95% of bromide was removed as Br2(g) in less than 10 min under weakly acidic conditions without significant formation of Cl2(g) even when the chloride concentration was more than 2 orders of magnitude higher. A kinetic model considering the involved reactions was then developed to describe the process well under various reaction conditions. The organic compounds in the produced water neither noticeably lowered the bromide removal efficiency nor reacted with the halogen species to form halogenated byproducts. The tests in batch and continuously stirred tank reactor systems suggested that it was feasible to achieve both high bromide removal and neutral effluent pH such that further pH adjustment was not necessary before discharge. After the treatment, the effect of the produced water on DBP formation was largely eliminated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Bromides
  • Disinfectants*
  • Disinfection
  • Halogenation
  • Natural Gas
  • Peroxides
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*
  • Water Purification*
  • Water Supply


  • Bromides
  • Disinfectants
  • Natural Gas
  • Peroxides
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • peroxymonosulfate