Objective: Chronic mechanical neck pain is associated with musculoskeletal tissue alterations. Active trigger points in the trapezius and levator scapulae muscles are common in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain. In this study, we compared the effect of dry needling (DN) combined with manual therapy (MT) to sham dry needling (SDN) combined with MT on pain, pain pressure threshold, cervical range of motion and neck disability in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain.
Methods: A randomised, single-blind clinical trial was carried out involving 101 participants with chronic mechanical neck pain, divided into an intervention group (DN+MT, n=47) and a control group (SDN+MT, n=54). Participants received two treatment sessions. The intervention group received MT in conjunction with DN of the most mechano-sensitive myofascial trigger point (MTrP). The control group received MT plus SDN. Outcomes measures were: pain intensity (numeric pain rating scale, NPRS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), cervical range of motion (ROM) and neck disability (neck disability index, NDI).
Results: This study found that between-group differences in pain intensity were statistically significant (P<0.01). Pain decreased after the first intervention in the DN+MT group (3.47±0.25 points on the NPRS) and even more so after the second intervention (4.76±0.24 points on the NPRS). After 4 weeks, pain intensity differed from baseline by 4.89±0.27 points on the NPRS. Statistically significant differences (P<0.001) in PPT were also found between the intervention group and the control group. After the first intervention, a significant increase in PPT within the DN+MT group (3.09±0.8 kg/cm2) was observed. Cervical ROM also showed highly statistically significant differences. After 4 weeks, a statistically significant reduction (P<0.001) in NDI was observed between the two groups.
Conclusion: Our results show that DN+MT is efficacious and significantly better than SDN+MT at reducing pain intensity, PPT, neck disability and cervical ROM in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain.
Level of evidence: 1b.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02435966.
Keywords: cervical range of motion; clinical trials; dry needling; manual therapy; musculoskeletal disorders; myofascial pain; myofascial pain syndrome; neck disability index; neuromuscular disease; pressure pain threshold.