What is the place of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the management of cerebral vasculopathy in children with sickle cell anemia?

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2020 Sep;13(3):121-130. doi: 10.1016/j.hemonc.2019.12.002. Epub 2020 Mar 12.


Cerebral vasculopathy is the most severe complication affecting children with sickle cell anemia. Significant progress has been made in the management of sickle cell anemia cerebral vasculopathy, including early transcranial Doppler screening, chronic transfusion, andhydroxyurea. Nevertheless, for patients with a potential matched-sibling donor (MSD), stem cell transplantation (SCT) is now the treatment offering the best cerebral vasculopathy outcome. In the absence of MSD,alternative SCT should be recommended only in those with worsening cerebral vasculopathy despite standard treatments, and should be limited to related haplo-identical SCT undertaken in controlled studies.

Keywords: Hydroxyurea; Sickle cell anemia; Silent cerebral infarct; Stroke; Transcranial doppler; Transfusion.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Allografts
  • Anemia, Sickle Cell* / complications
  • Anemia, Sickle Cell* / diagnostic imaging
  • Anemia, Sickle Cell* / therapy
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders* / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders* / etiology
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders* / therapy
  • Child
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxyurea / therapeutic use*
  • Siblings*
  • Tissue Donors*
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial*


  • Hydroxyurea