Ophthalmologe. 2020 Apr;117(4):389-402. doi: 10.1007/s00347-020-01081-x.
[Article in German]


Retinoblastomas represent 6% of all malignant tumors in children under 5 years old, which untreated lead to blindness in the affected eye and death due to metastases. The main symptoms are leukocoria and strabismus, which if possible, always necessitate a clarification within 1 week for exclusion of a retinoblastoma. The most frequent differential diagnoses are Coats' disease and persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) as well as other intraocular tumors, in particular astrocytomas. Systemic chemotherapy, if necessary in combination with laser hyperthermia, local chemotherapy and brachytherapy are the most important methods for eye-preserving treatment. Advanced cases mostly necessitate enucleation.

Keywords: Chemotherapy; Clinical diagnosis; Differential diagnoses; Molecular genetics; Radiotherapy.

MeSH terms

  • Brachytherapy*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Eye Enucleation
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous*
  • Retinal Neoplasms*
  • Retinal Telangiectasis
  • Retinoblastoma*