Geriatric Assessment Among Elderly Patients Undergoing Urological Surgery: A Systematic Literature Review

Adv Clin Exp Med. 2020 Mar;29(3):399-407. doi: 10.17219/acem/115085.

Abstract

The elderly constitute the group of patients who most often undergo elective urological procedures, and they are at the highest risk of poor surgical outcomes because of comorbidity and frailty. The current model of qualification for surgery is often subjective and based on tools which do not address the characteristics of the elderly. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) and screening tools can help in the evaluation of older, particularly frail patients. The aim of the study was to review the literature on the usefulness of preoperative geriatric evaluation in patients undergoing urological treatment. The review was based on MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library bibliographic databases from 2000-2017 for full-text, English-language publications meeting pre-defined criteria. Six prospective and 3 retrospective studies were selected for further analysis. The patient populations, methods of geriatric assessment, interventions, and outcome measures varied between the studies. None of the studies were randomized controlled trials. In 2 studies, the CGA was used; in other studies, rather basic screening tests were used. In only 2 studies, an intervention was performed after the CGA. In general, the variables of the CGA were both prospectively and retrospectively significant predictors of complications of urological surgery. Although the use of CGA is not a standard practice in everyday urological clinical practice, components of the CGA appear to be predictive of postoperative complications. Therefore, inclusion of geriatric assessment as part of routine preoperative care in geriatric urology patients should be considered. Because of the lack of randomized controlled trials on preoperative CGAs in urology patients, further studies are needed.

Keywords: elderly; frailty; geriatric assessment; preoperative assessment; urological surgery.

Publication types

  • Review