Epidemiological data on pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D), mainly incidence, have become increasingly available since the second half of the 20th century. Comparative incidence data across populations were only obtained since the 1980s. The 2019 IDF Atlas provides T1D incidence, prevalence and mortality estimates for children < 15 years for all 211 countries, but actual data were available for only 94 countries (only 3 low-income). The estimated prevalent cases were 600,900 and incident cases 98,200. Incidence remains highest in Finland (60/100,000/ year), Sardinia and Sweden, followed by Kuwait, some other northern European countries, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada. The lowest incidence is seen across East and South-East Asia. Globally, the average increase in incidence has been 3-4%/year over past decades, being steeper in low-incidence countries. Although T1D mortality has drastically decreased, there is still a higher risk compared with the non-diabetic population, especially in people with diabetic nephropathy.
Keywords: Childhood-onset; Geographic variation; Incidence; Mortality; Temporal trends; Type 1 diabetes.
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