Although a meta-analysis previously suggested a positive relationship between diabetes and intraocular pressure (IOP), the interrelationships among diabetes, IOP, and other ocular biometric parameters remain unclear. The present study investigated the relationships of diabetes, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and serum glucose with IOP and ocular hypertension (IOP > 21 mmHg) in non-glaucomatous Japanese adults living in Chikusei City. Diabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes, the use of antidiabetic medication, or HbA1c levels ≥6.5%. Among 6,786 enrolled participants aged 40 years and above, 734 were classified as diabetic (10.8%). After adjusting for several confounders, the IOP values were significantly higher in participants with diabetes than in those without diabetes (14.4 ± 0.1 vs. 13.9 ± 0.1 mmHg, P < 0.001) and were also significantly increased in those with elevated HbA1c and serum glucose levels (both P < 0.001). Moreover, diabetes was significantly related to ocular hypertension (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.81; P < 0.05). The positive influence of diabetes with ocular hypertension was consistent even after adjustment for central corneal thickness. In conclusion, diabetes, elevated HbA1c, and increased serum glucose are significant contributing factors for elevated IOP.