Background: Type-1 gastric neuroendocrine tumors represent a recurring disease and long-acting somatostatin analogs can inhibit both gastrin release and endocrine cell proliferation. The efficacy and timing of this treatment are still unclear. We performed a systematic review of the literature to clarify the role of somatostatin analog treatment in type-1 gastric neuroendocrine tumors.
Methods: A computerized literature search was performed using relevant keywords to identify all the pertinent articles published in the last 15 years.
Results: Eight studies were included in this systematic review on somatostatin analogs in type-1 gastric neuroendocrine tumors. A complete response rate ranged from 25-100%. When only the six prospective studies were considered, no significant heterogeneity was observed, and the pooled cumulative complete response rate was 84.5% (confidence interval 73.8-92.8). Three studies evaluated the type-1 gastric neuroendocrine tumor recurrence, with a cumulative relapse rate of 30.2% (confidence interval 13.1-50.6) after 34 months.
Conclusion: Somatostatin analogs, namely lanreotide and octreotide, have an excellent response rate, with a good safety profile in selected type-1 gastric neuroendocrine tumors, which cannot be safely managed by endoscopic follow-up or resection due to multiple or frequently recurring disease. After therapy discontinuation, the cumulative relapse rate observed after a median 34-month follow-up was relatively high (30.2%).
Keywords: Gastric neuroendocrine tumors; gastric carcinoids; lanreotide; octreotide; somatostatin analogs.