Few studies evaluated the structure of the short versions of the Chinese translation of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) among Chinese-speaking individuals. Meanwhile, contemporary theory of IU has emphasized the role of IU as the basic transdiagnostic mechanism underlying emotional disorders, and further empirical support is awaited. Thus, the current research aimed to examine the structure of the IUS (Chinese translation) and the hierarchical model of IU. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare fit of the two-factor and bifactor models of the original and short versions (IUS-18 and IUS-12) of the IUS (Chinese translation) among Chinese-speaking samples of adults. The direct effects of IU and indirect effects of IU via neuroticism on anxiety and depression symptoms were examined using structural equation modeling. All IUS models demonstrated acceptable fit. Using the bifactor model of the IUS-12 (Chinese translation), the hierarchical model of IU affecting anxiety and depression via neuroticism was supported. The prospective and inhibitory IU factors performed differently in relating to emotional vulnerabilities and symptoms. We provide suggestions for measuring and modeling IU, and the role of IU as the basic transdiagnostic vulnerability was suggested in Chinese-speaking samples.