Although liver transplantation (LT) is the best treatment for patients with localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), recurrence occurs in 6%-18% of patients. Several factors, particularly morphological criteria combined with dynamic parameters, known before LT modify this risk and combined in prediction models may be used to stratify patients at need of variable surveillance strategies. Additional variables though likely explain differences in recurrence rates in patients with the same pre-LT HCC status. One of these variables is possibly immunosuppression (IS). Once recurrence takes place, management is highly heterogenous. Within the International Liver Transplantation Society Consensus Conference on Liver Transplant Oncology, working group 4 aim was to analyze the data regarding posttransplant management of recipients undergoing LT for HCC. Three areas of research were considered: (1) cancer prediction models and surveillance strategies; (2) tailored IS for cancer recipients; and (3) new adjuvant therapies for HCC recurrence. Following formulation of several questions, a literature search was undertaken with abstract review followed by article retrieval and full-data extraction. The grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system was used for evidence rating incorporating strength of recommendation and quality of evidence.