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. 2020 Mar 25;17(7):2192.
doi: 10.3390/ijerph17072192.

Health Risk Assessment of Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, Hg, Se) in Angling Fish With Different Lengths Collected From Liuzhou, China

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Health Risk Assessment of Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, Hg, Se) in Angling Fish With Different Lengths Collected From Liuzhou, China

Jun Li et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. .
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Abstract

Wild fish caught by anglers (WFAs) were confirmed to be usually contaminated with metals, and the contamination status is radically affected by the growth and length of the fish. To determine the contamination levels of metals and health risks in WFAs with different length ranges of fish, this study ascertained the concentration of eight metals, including Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, Hg and Se, in 171 wild fishes collected from the watershed of Liujiang River. The assessment of metal pollution and health risks from the consumption of these fishes with seven length ranges were accomplished. The obtained results implied a relatively high concentration of Zn, Cr, and Cd up to 109.294 mg/kg, 4.226 mg/kg, and 0.196 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively, which exceed the corresponding Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). The negative correlation between Cu, Zn, Cr, and Cd was observed to be significant with fish length, signifying a possible occurrence of biological dilution on these metals. The WFAs were mostly contaminated with Cr and Cd irrespective of the length ranges of fish, which were denoted by the average pollution index (Pi) of Cr and Cd and were commonly found to be beyond 0.2. Based on the results of health risk assessment analysis, most of the target hazard quotient (THQ) values of Cr were below 1, implying that the consumption of wild fish for adults has insignificant health risk. For children, the total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) values of beyond 1 were found in fishes with the length range of <25 cm, particularly a TTHQ value 1.627 in the range of 10-15 cm, indicating that children are being prone to serious health risks owing to the consumption of WFAs. The weekly recommended consumption of WFAs with the length range of 10-15 cm for adults and children was 0.298 kg/week and 0.149 kg/week, respectively. These are substantially lower than the current rate of fish consumption (0.42 kg/week), and therefore, the wild fish with the length range of 10-15 cm should be avoided for consumption.

Keywords: Liuzhou; different lengths; fish caught by anglers; health risk assessments; metals.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Study area with the five sampling sites along the Liujiang River and its tributary the Luoqingjiang River.
Figure 2
Figure 2
The concentration of metals in different length ranges of fish.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Pollution index (Pi) and total metal pollution index (MPI) in fish with different length ranges.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Target hazard quotient (THQ) of Cr and total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) in fish with different length ranges.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Weekly recommended consumption of fish (kg/week) with different length ranges.

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