Possible role of C60 fullerene in the induction of reproductive toxicity in the freshwater fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792)

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jun;27(16):19603-19615. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-08509-6. Epub 2020 Mar 26.


In recent years, the impact of ultrafine nanomaterials on the aquatic organisms and their ecosystems contributed much concern due to their abundance in environment. Several toxicity studies have reported that nanoparticles induced reproductive stress and resulted in reproductive impairment of fishes. The present study was aimed to investigate the stress-induced toxicity of C60 fullerene nanomaterial on various reproductive parameters of the freshwater fish, Anabas testudineus. Fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of fullerene C60, one-tenth (5 mg/L) and one-fifth (10 mg/L) of LC50-96 h, for 4, 7, 15, 30, and 60-day durations. At the end of exposure period, the activities of steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase decreased in the testis and ovary thereby indicated that the nanomaterial affected gonadal steroidogenesis. The level of serum testosterone decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in male whereas the level of estradiol showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in female fish with significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum cortisol in both sexes in concentration- and time-dependent manner. The analysis of the levels of alkali-labile phosphates, plasma calcium, and total protein showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in female fish without significant changes in male fish, and this could be due to the antiestrogenic action of fullerene C60 nanomaterial. The activity of aromatase enzyme decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the ovary and brain of female fish, and the decline in the enzyme activity was prominent only in the brain tissue of male fish. The present results suggested that the stress-induced by fullerene C60 exposure provoked reproductive toxicity in the fish, Anabas testudineus.

Keywords: Anabas testudineus; Aromatase; Fullerene C60; Hormones; Steroidogenic enzymes.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ecosystem
  • Female
  • Fishes
  • Fresh Water
  • Fullerenes*
  • Male
  • Reproduction


  • Fullerenes