Background: To date, there has been no published work towards understanding or classifying patient safety incidents (PSIs) or their aftermath as potential morally injurious experiences (pMIEs). A morally injurious experience is one that violates deeply held moral values and beliefs, and can put an individual at risk for burnout, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other trauma-related problems. This can also set the stage for moral injury, which can occur when there has been a betrayal of what is right by someone in a position of legitimate authority, or by one's self, in a high-stakes situation.
Objective: The objective of this review of nurse second victim literature is to describe symptoms of moral injury empirically observed in nurses in the aftermath of a PSI.
Methods: A critical review using a SALSA (search, appraisal, synthesis, analysis) method commenced with a search of electronic data base-indexed original evidence between 1980 and December 2018, focusing on registered nurses involved with a PSI.
Results: The nurse empirical literature reviewed included qualitative (n = 10), quantitative (n = 7), and mixed-methods (n = 4) studies (total n = 21). Core moral injury symptoms included guilt (67%), shame (71%), spiritual-existential crisis (9%), and loss of trust (52%). Secondary symptoms of moral injury included depression (33%), anxiety (57%), anger (71%), self-harm, (19%), and social problems (48%).
Implications: Moral injury better describes what historically has been called the nurse second victim phenomenon. Through identification of pMIEs and symptoms of moral injury, nurses and organizations can be empowered to advance training and intervention programs addressing pMIEs that affect nurses' safety and retention in the aftermath of a PSI.
Clinical relevance: By describing the experiences associated with a PSI as potentially morally injurious, we set the stage to describe the potential consequences associated with the aftermath of the PSI. Furthermore, this language avoids victimizing those involved by more accurately reflecting the pMIEs of the aftermath.
Keywords: Betrayal trauma; moral injury; patient safety; second victim.
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