Second messenger molecules are crucial components of environmental signaling systems to integrate multiple inputs and elicit physiological responses. Among various kinds of second messengers, cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) play pivotal roles in bacterial environmental responses. However, how these signaling systems are interconnected for a concerted regulation of cellular physiology remains elusive. In a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus vulcanus strain RKN, incident light color is sensed by cyanobacteriochrome photoreceptors to transduce the light information to the levels of c-di-GMP, which induces cellular aggregation probably via cellulose synthase activation. Herein, we identified that Tlr0485, which is composed of a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylate cyclases, and FhlA (GAF) domain and an HD-GYP domain, is a cAMP-activated c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. We also show biochemical evidence that the two class-III nucleotide cyclases, Cya1 and Cya2, are both adenylate cyclases to produce cAMP in T. vulcanus. The prevalence of cAMP-activated c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase genes in cyanobacterial genomes suggests that the direct crosstalk between cAMP and c-di-GMP signaling systems may be crucial for cyanobacterial environmental responses.
Keywords: Thermosynechococcus; cAMP; cyanobacteria; cyclic di-GMP; second messenger; sessility; signal transduction.