Predicted annual energy yield of III-V/c-Si tandem solar cells: modelling the effect of changing spectrum on current-matching

Opt Express. 2020 Mar 16;28(6):7829-7842. doi: 10.1364/OE.384620.


High efficiencies of >30% are predicted for series-connected tandem solar cells when current-matching is achieved between the wide-bandgap top cell and silicon bottom cell. Sub-cells are typically optimized for current-matching based on the standard AM1.5G spectrum, but in practice, the incident radiation on a solar cell can be very different from this standard due to the effects of the sun's location in the sky, atmospheric conditions, total diffuse element etc. The resulting deviations in spectral content from optimum conditions lead to current mismatch between tandem cell layers that adversely affects the device's performance. To investigate the impact of this issue the energy yield (%) of tandem solar cells comprising a III-V wide-bandgap solar cell connected electrically and optically in series with a silicon bottom cell was simulated over a full year using measured spectral data from Denver, CO. Top cells with bandgaps from 1.5-1.9 eV were modelled using an external radiative efficiency method. The predicted annual energy yields were as high as 31% with an optimum 1.8 eV top cell, only 2.8% lower (absolute) than the AM1.5G predicted efficiency. The annual energy yield of tandem cells with no current-matching constraint, i.e. parallel-connected devices, was also simulated. Here the difference between series and parallel connections were only significant for non-optimum bandgap combinations. Our results indicate that AM1.5G based optimization of sub-cells can be effectively employed to achieve high energy yields of >25% for III-V/Si tandem solar cells in mid-latitude US locations, despite the continuous variation in spectra throughout a calendar year.