Prehospital plasma is associated with distinct biomarker expression following injury

JCI Insight. 2020 Apr 23;5(8):e135350. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.135350.


BACKGROUNDPrehospital plasma improves survival in severely injured patients transported by air ambulance. We hypothesized that prehospital plasma would be associated with a reduction in immune imbalance and endothelial damage.METHODSWe sampled blood from 405 trauma patients enrolled in the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial upon hospital admission (0 hours) and 24 hours post admission across 6 U.S. sites. We assayed samples for 21 inflammatory mediators and 7 markers associated with endothelial function and damage. We performed hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) of these biomarkers of the immune response and endothelial injury. Regression analysis was used to control for differences across study and to assess any association with prehospital plasma resuscitation.RESULTSHCA distinguished two patient clusters with different injury patterns and outcomes. Patients in cluster A had greater injury severity and incidence of blunt trauma, traumatic brain injury, and mortality. Cluster A patients that received prehospital plasma showed improved 30-day survival. Prehospital plasma did not improve survival in cluster B patients. In an adjusted analysis of the most seriously injured patients, prehospital plasma was associated with an increase in adiponectin, IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-23, and IL-17E upon admission, and a reduction in syndecan-1, TM, VEGF, IL-6, IP-10, MCP-1, and TNF-α, and an increase in IL-33, IL-21, IL-23, and IL-17E 24 hours later.CONCLUSIONPrehospital plasma may ameliorate immune dysfunction and the endotheliopathy of trauma. These effects of plasma may contribute to improved survival in injured patients.TRIAL REGISTRATIONNCT01818427.FUNDINGDepartment of Defense; National Institutes of Health, U.S. Army.

Keywords: Cellular immune response; Cytokines; Immunology; Inflammation; endothelial cells.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Air Ambulances
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Emergency Medical Services / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Plasma*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Wounds and Injuries / therapy*


  • Biomarkers

Associated data